Prelims 2023

Q44. Consider the following statements:
Statement-I: Israel has established diplomatic relations with some Arab States.
Statement-II: The ‘Arab Peach Initiative’ mediated by Saudi Arabia was signed by Israel and Arab League.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?
a. Both statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
b. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
c. Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect.
d. Statement-I- is incorrect but Statement-II is correct.

Question from UPSC Prelims 2023 GS Paper

Explanation : 

Correct Answer: c. Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect.

Israel’s Diplomatic Relations with Arab States

Israel has forged new diplomatic relations with several Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco. These groundbreaking agreements, collectively known as the Abraham Accords, were brokered by the United States in 2020.

Arab Peace Initiative

The Arab Peace Initiative, also known as the Saudi Initiative, is a proposal for an end to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which was endorsed by the Arab League in 2002 at the Beirut Summit. The initiative offers full normalization of relations between the Arab region and Israel, in exchange for a full withdrawal by Israel from the occupied territories (including East Jerusalem) and a “just settlement” of the Palestinian refugee problem based on UN Resolution 194.

Key Points

  1. Full Israeli Withdrawal: From all the Arab territories occupied since June 1967, including the Golan Heights, the remaining occupied Lebanese territories, and the territories of the future Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital.
  2. Just Solution to Refugee Issue: Agreed upon in accordance with UN General Assembly Resolution 194.
  3. Establishment of Palestinian State: Sovereign independent Palestinian state on the territories occupied since June 4, 1967, in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital.
  4. Normalization of Relations: Arab countries affirm the establishment of normal relations with Israel within the framework of this comprehensive peace.

The initiative was a significant move by the Arab states to openly express their willingness to resolve the conflict and recognize Israel upon the fulfillment of the outlined conditions. Despite this, the initiative has not led to a final peace agreement, as negotiations and peace efforts have faced numerous challenges and setbacks over the years.

Israel has expressed reservations about some aspects of the initiative, particularly the full return to the 1967 borders and the right of return for Palestinian refugees, arguing that these issues should be resolved through direct negotiations rather than through preconditions. Israel has not signed the Arab Peace Initiative.

The Arab Peace Initiative remains a reference point in discussions about resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict, and its principles are often cited in peace talks and diplomatic efforts to achieve a two-state solution.

Arab Peace Initiative – Wikipedia

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