Model Answers

# Q: Explain the probability sampling strategies with examples.

*Question asked in UPSC Sociology 2019 Paper 1. Download our app for last 20 year question with model answers.*

**Model Answer:**

## Probability Sampling

Probability sampling is a sampling technique in which every member of the population has a known, non-zero chance of being selected in the sample. This method ensures that the sample is representative of the population, allowing researchers to make generalizations about the population based on the sample.

### Simple Random Sampling

In this method, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. The selection process is completely random, like picking names out of a hat or using a random number generator. For example, if you want to survey the opinions of 100 students in a school of 1000 students, you could assign each student a number and use a random number generator to select 100 numbers.

### Systematic Sampling

In this method, the population is ordered in some way, and every nth member is selected. For example, if you want to survey 100 people in a town of 1000 residents, you could order the residents alphabetically and select every 10th person on the list.

### Stratified Sampling

In this method, the population is divided into subgroups (or strata) based on certain characteristics, and then a random sample is taken from each subgroup. This ensures that the sample is representative of the different subgroups in the population. For example, if you want to survey the opinions of people in a city about a new policy, you could divide the population into different age groups and then randomly select a certain number of people from each age group.

### Cluster Sampling

In this method, the population is divided into clusters, and then a random sample of clusters is selected. All members of the selected clusters are included in the sample. This method is often used when the population is spread out over a large geographic area. For example, if you want to survey the opinions of farmers in a large rural area, you could divide the area into smaller regions (clusters) and then randomly select a few regions to survey all the farmers in those regions.

### Multistage Sampling

In this method, a combination of the above strategies is used. For example, you could first use cluster sampling to select a sample of schools in a city, and then use stratified sampling within each school to select a sample of students from different grade levels.

Each of these probability sampling strategies has its own advantages and disadvantages, depending on the research question and the characteristics of the population being studied. However, all of them aim to provide a representative sample of the population, allowing researchers to make generalizations and draw conclusions about the population based on the sample.

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