2023 GS3 Answer

Q. How does technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS3 Paper

Model Answer:

Technology in Agriculture

The advent of technology has revolutionized various sectors around the globe, and agriculture is no exception. In India, where agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58% of the population, technology has played a significant role in enhancing production and marketing of agricultural produce. From advanced machinery for farming to digital platforms for marketing, technology has become an integral part of the agricultural sector in India.

Improved Farming Techniques

The use of modern technology in farming has made it possible to increase productivity and reduce human effort. For example, the use of drones for crop monitoring helps farmers to detect problems early and take appropriate measures. Similarly, precision farming, which involves the use of GPS mapping systems and satellite imagery, allows farmers to manage their crops more efficiently.

Irrigation Technology

In India, where agriculture heavily depends on the monsoon, irrigation technology has been a game-changer. Drip irrigation and sprinkler systems ensure that crops get the right amount of water, reducing water wastage and improving crop yield.

Use of Biotechnology

Biotechnology has led to the development of genetically modified (GM) crops that are resistant to pests and diseases. This not only reduces the use of harmful pesticides but also increases crop yield.

Soil and Weather Analysis

Technology has made it possible to analyze soil health and predict weather patterns accurately. This helps farmers make informed decisions about what crops to plant and when to plant them.

Digital Platforms for Marketing

With the advent of digital platforms like eNAM (Electronic National Agricultural Market), farmers in India now have a wider market to sell their produce. These platforms eliminate middlemen, ensuring that farmers get a fair price for their produce.

Mobile Apps

Several mobile apps have been developed to provide farmers with real-time information on weather, market prices, and new farming techniques. For example, the Kisan Suvidha app provides information on weather, market prices, and agricultural advisories.

Farm Machinery

The use of modern farm machinery like tractors, harvesters, and threshers has reduced the manual labor required in farming. This has not only increased productivity but also made farming less physically demanding.

Cold Storage Facilities

Technology has also improved post-harvest management. Cold storage facilities help in preserving agricultural produce for a longer period, reducing post-harvest losses and ensuring that farmers get a fair price for their produce.


In conclusion, technology has brought about significant changes in the agricultural sector in India. It has not only improved farming practices but also opened up new avenues for marketing agricultural produce. However, to fully harness the benefits of technology, it is essential to address the digital divide that exists in rural India and ensure that all farmers have access to these technological advancements.

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