2022 GS3 Answer

Q. Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues gest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism.

Question from UPSC Mains 2022 GS3 Paper

Model Answer: 

Naxalism is a violent left-wing extremist movement that emerged in the late 1960s in India. It is primarily a social, economic, and developmental issue that has now become a serious internal security threat. A multilayered strategy is required to address the root causes of Naxalism and effectively tackle the menace. In this answer, we will discuss the emerging issues that need to be addressed and the multilayered strategy required to tackle Naxalism, along with examples.

Emerging Issues:

Marginalization of Tribals: The exploitation of tribals by non-tribal groups has been a key factor in the emergence of Naxalism. The lack of land rights, displacement due to development projects, and denial of basic amenities like healthcare and education have fueled the discontent among tribals.

Red Corridor: The Naxalite affected states are known as the “Red Corridor,” where the lack of development, poverty, and inequality are the main drivers of Naxalism.
Violence: The use of violence by Naxalites to achieve their objectives is a major challenge for the security forces.
Funding: Naxalites receive funding from various sources, including extortion and illegal activities, which enables them to sustain their activities.
Ideology: Naxalism is based on Marxist-Leninist ideology, and the propagation of this ideology among the youth is a significant challenge.

Multilayered Strategy:

Development: Development is the key to addressing the root causes of Naxalism. The government needs to ensure that development initiatives reach the grassroots level and benefit the people, especially the marginalized communities.


The National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) aims to provide sustainable livelihoods to the rural poor and reduce poverty in Naxal-affected areas.
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) aims to provide connectivity to unconnected habitations in Naxal-affected areas.
Security: Security forces need to be equipped with modern technology and training to effectively tackle Naxalism.


The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) has deployed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and intelligence gathering in Naxal-affected areas.
The Greyhounds, a specialized anti-Naxalite force in Andhra Pradesh, has been successful in neutralizing several Naxalite leaders.
Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation of surrendered Naxalites is essential to reintegrate them into mainstream society.


The Chhattisgarh government has launched the “Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy” to provide incentives and a dignified life to surrendered Naxalites.
The Andhra Pradesh government has launched the “Girijan Deepam Scheme” to rehabilitate tribals who were forced to join the Naxal movement.

Ideological Battle: The government needs to counter the Naxalite ideology through a sustained ideological battle.


The Ministry of Home Affairs has launched a campaign called “SAMADHAN” to counter the Naxalite ideology through social media platforms.

The government has also established a dedicated unit called the “Centre for Left Wing Extremism” to study the Naxalite ideology and develop strategies to counter it.

International Cooperation: International cooperation is essential to curb the funding of Naxalite activities.


India and Nepal have signed an agreement to prevent the movement of Naxalites across the border.

India has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Bangladesh to enhance cooperation in preventing and combating extremism and terrorism.


A multilayered strategy that addresses the root causes of Naxalism, enhances security measures, focuses on rehabilitation and reintegration, engages in a sustained ideological battle, and promotes international cooperation is necessary to tackle the menace of Naxalism. The government needs to implement development projects that reach the grassroots level and benefit the marginalized communities, provide modern technology and training to security forces, and counter the Naxalite ideology through a sustained ideological battle. The success of such a strategy also depends on effective implementation and coordination among various government agencies and the active participation of civil society.

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