2022 GS3 Answer

Q. What are the different elements of cyber security ? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security, examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy.

Question from UPSC Mains 2022 GS3 Paper

Model Answer: 

Cybersecurity refers to the protection of computer systems, networks, and devices from theft or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data. India has witnessed an increase in cyber threats over the years, and the government has taken various measures to combat cybercrime. In this answer, we will discuss the different elements of cybersecurity and examine India’s national cybersecurity strategy.

Elements of Cybersecurity:

Confidentiality: Ensuring that sensitive data is kept secret and only accessed by authorized individuals.
Integrity: Making sure that data is not tampered with or modified in any unauthorized way.
Availability: Ensuring that computer systems and networks are always accessible and operational.
Authentication: Verifying the identity of users who attempt to access a computer system or network.
Authorization: Determining what actions a user is permitted to perform on a computer system or network.
Non-repudiation: Ensuring that a sender of information cannot deny having sent it.

Challenges in Cybersecurity:

Rapidly evolving technology: Cybercriminals are continuously developing new techniques to exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems, and cybersecurity experts must be able to keep up with the latest developments to protect against attacks.
Lack of skilled cybersecurity professionals: The demand for cybersecurity professionals is high, but there is a shortage of qualified individuals to fill these positions.
Insider threats: Employees with access to sensitive information may intentionally or unintentionally cause data breaches or other cybersecurity incidents.
Limited budget and resources: Many organizations may not have the resources to invest in robust cybersecurity measures.
Increasing complexity of cyber threats: As technology evolves, cyber threats are becoming more sophisticated, making it challenging to defend against them.

India’s National Cyber Security Strategy:

India launched its National Cyber Security Policy (NCSP) in 2013 to safeguard the country’s critical information infrastructure from cyber threats. The NCSP has the following objectives:

1. Creating a secure cyber ecosystem in the country.
2. Developing effective mechanisms to prevent and respond to cyber threats.
3. Enhancing the resilience of the country’s critical information infrastructure.
4. Encouraging the development of indigenous cybersecurity technologies.
5. Strengthening the regulatory framework for cybersecurity.

India has also launched various initiatives to enhance its cybersecurity posture, such as:

1. The establishment of a National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) to coordinate cybersecurity efforts across various government agencies.
2. The launch of Cyber Swachhta Kendra, a tool to help citizens and organizations identify and remove malware from their devices.
3. The establishment of a Cyber Surakshit Bharat initiative to train individuals and organizations in cybersecurity best practices.
4. The launch of the Digital India program to increase digital literacy and promote the use of technology in various sectors.


India has made significant strides in enhancing its cybersecurity posture, but there is still room for improvement. The country faces various challenges in cybersecurity, such as the lack of skilled professionals and limited resources, but it has launched various initiatives to address these challenges. India’s National Cyber Security Policy and various initiatives demonstrate the government’s commitment to enhancing cybersecurity and creating a secure cyber ecosystem in the country.

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