2023 GS2 Answer

Q. Skill development programmes have succeeded in increasing human resources supply to various sectors. In the context of the statement analyse the linkages between education, skill and employment.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS2 Paper

Model Answer: 

Skill Development Programmes and their Impact on Human Resources Supply

Skill development programmes are a significant part of the growth strategy in any economy, especially in a country like India where the youth population is vast. These programmes aim to equip individuals with the necessary skills and knowledge to contribute effectively to the economy. The linkages between education, skill, and employment are critical to understanding the impact of skill development programmes on human resources supply.

1. Education as a Foundation:

Education forms the base of any skill development programme. It is through education that individuals acquire basic knowledge and cognitive skills. For instance, reading, writing, and arithmetic are foundational skills that are necessary for almost all jobs. In India, the Right to Education Act has made education accessible to all, thereby laying the groundwork for skill development.

2. Skill Development:

Skill Development Once the foundation of education is laid, skill development programmes come into play. These programmes offer specialised training in various sectors such as technology, healthcare, hospitality, etc. For instance, the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) in India aims to provide industry-relevant skill training to millions of young Indians.

3. Bridging the Skill Gap:

Skill Development Programmes help bridge the skill gap in the industry. Many industries face a shortage of skilled labour, and these programmes provide the necessary training to meet this demand. For instance, the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in India has partnered with various industries to provide training in specific skills.

4. Enhancing Employability:

Skilled individuals have a higher chance of getting employed as they possess the necessary skills required by the industry. The National Career Service (NCS) in India provides a platform for job seekers and employers, where skilled individuals can find suitable job opportunities.

5. Promoting Entrepreneurship:

Skill development programmes not only enhance employability but also promote entrepreneurship. Individuals with specific skills can start their own business, thereby creating more job opportunities. For instance, the Stand-Up India scheme supports entrepreneurship among women and SC/ST communities.

6. Economic Growth:

An increase in skilled labour contributes to economic growth. Skilled individuals are more productive, leading to an increase in output and income. This, in turn, leads to economic growth.

7. Social Inclusion:

Skill development programmes promote social inclusion by providing equal opportunities to all, irrespective of their social and economic background. For instance, the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) in India aims at skilling rural youth who are poor and provides them with jobs with regular monthly wages.


In conclusion, the linkages between education, skill, and employment are evident in the success of skill development programmes in increasing human resources supply. Education forms the base, skill development enhances employability, and employment leads to economic growth. However, the success of these programmes depends on their quality and relevance to industry needs. Therefore, continuous monitoring and updating of these programmes are necessary to meet the changing demands of the industry.

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