2023 GS2 Answer

Q. The expansion and strengthening of NATO and a stronger US-Europe strategic partnership works well for India.’ What is your opinion about this statement? Give reasons and examples to support your answer.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS2 Paper

Model Answer: 

Benefits of NATO Expansion and a Stronger US-Europe Partnership for India

The statement asserts that the expansion and strengthening of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and a more robust US-Europe strategic partnership is beneficial for India. In the current geopolitical climate, this statement holds true for several reasons. The expansion of NATO and a stronger US-Europe partnership can provide India with opportunities to deepen its strategic ties, enhance its security, and increase its global influence.

1. Countering China’s Assertiveness

China’s growing assertiveness in the Indo-Pacific region is a significant concern for India. A stronger NATO and US-Europe partnership could help India counter China’s aggressive posture. Recently, NATO has started to focus more on China’s military expansion, which aligns with India’s strategic interests. For example, the NATO 2030 agenda acknowledges China’s assertiveness as a systemic challenge to global security.

2. Access to Advanced Technology

A stronger US-Europe partnership could provide India with greater access to advanced technology. The US and Europe are leaders in technology and defense equipment, and a closer partnership with them could boost India’s military modernization efforts. For instance, India has already signed several defense deals with the US, such as the procurement of Apache and Chinook helicopters.

3. Enhancing India’s Global Influence

India’s strategic alignment with NATO and the US-Europe partnership could enhance its global influence. It could provide India with a platform to voice its concerns and interests on global issues, such as terrorism, climate change, and nuclear proliferation.

4. Strengthening Democratic Alliances

India, the US, and Europe share common democratic values. A stronger US-Europe partnership, coupled with NATO’s expansion, could help India strengthen its democratic alliances around the world. This could serve as a counterweight to authoritarian regimes like China and Russia.

5. Economic Opportunities

A stronger US-Europe strategic partnership could lead to increased trade and investment opportunities for India. The US and Europe are among India’s largest trading partners, and a closer strategic partnership could boost economic ties.

6. Enhancing Security Cooperation

The expansion of NATO could enhance security cooperation between India and NATO member states. This would be crucial in tackling global security challenges like terrorism and cybercrime.

7. Promoting Peace and Stability

A stronger NATO and US-Europe partnership could promote peace and stability in regions critical to India’s interests, such as the Indo-Pacific and Afghanistan.


In conclusion, the expansion and strengthening of NATO and a stronger US-Europe strategic partnership could indeed work well for India. It could help India counter China’s assertiveness, gain access to advanced technology, enhance its global influence, strengthen democratic alliances, boost economic ties, enhance security cooperation, and promote peace and stability. However, India needs to tread carefully to ensure that its strategic autonomy is not compromised.

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