2023 GS2 Answer

Q. The crucial aspect of development process has been the inadequate attention paid to Human Resource Development in India. Suggest measures that can address this inadequacy.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS2 Paper

Model Answer: 

Human Resource Development (HRD)

Human Resource Development (HRD) is an essential component of the development process in any country. It involves the development of human capital through education, training, and health care, which are vital for economic growth and development. Despite its importance, HRD has often been overlooked in India’s development strategy, leading to a significant gap in the development process. This essay suggests measures that can address the inadequacy of HRD in India.

Prioritizing Education:

Education is the cornerstone of HRD. India should prioritize education, particularly at the primary and secondary levels. The government should invest more in educational infrastructure, improve teacher quality, and ensure that all children, regardless of their socio-economic background, have access to quality education. For instance, the ‘Right to Education’ act should be effectively implemented to ensure no child is left out.

Vocational Training:

Vocational training and skill development programs should be promoted. These programs equip individuals with specific skills needed for particular jobs, thereby improving their employability. The ‘Skill India’ initiative is a step in the right direction, but it needs to be more widespread and accessible.

Health Care:

A healthy workforce is a productive workforce. Therefore, India needs to invest more in health care, particularly in rural areas where access to quality health care is often limited. The ‘Ayushman Bharat’ scheme, which aims to provide health insurance to the poor, is a positive move but needs to be effectively implemented.

Women Empowerment:

Women constitute almost half of India’s population, but their potential is often underutilized. Measures should be taken to empower women, such as providing them with education, skills training, and employment opportunities. This can be achieved through initiatives like ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ and ‘Ujjwala Yojana’.

Labor Law Reforms:

India’s labor laws are often criticized for being rigid and outdated. They need to be reformed to make them more flexible and conducive to the changing dynamics of the labor market. This can help in creating more jobs and improving labor productivity.

Social Security:

Social security measures should be strengthened to protect the interests of the workers. This can be done by expanding the coverage of social security schemes and ensuring their effective implementation.

Digital Literacy:

In the era of digitalization, digital literacy has become essential. Measures should be taken to promote digital literacy, particularly among the rural and marginalized sections of society. This can be done through initiatives like ‘Digital India’.

Public-Private Partnership:

Public-private partnership in HRD can be an effective strategy. The private sector can bring in investment, technology, and expertise, while the government can provide regulatory support and infrastructure.


In conclusion, the development of human resources is crucial for India’s economic growth and development. Therefore, it is essential to address the inadequacy of HRD in India through measures like prioritizing education, promoting vocational training, investing in health care, empowering women, reforming labor laws, strengthening social security, promoting digital literacy, and encouraging public-private partnership. These measures can help in creating a skilled, healthy, and productive workforce, which is vital for India’s development.

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