2023 GS2 Answer

Q. Discuss the contribution of civil society groups for women’s effective and meaningful participation and representation in state legislatures in India.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS2 Paper

Model Answer: 

Civil society groups and women’s participation in state legislatures in India

Civil society groups play a critical role in promoting women’s participation and representation in state legislatives in India. They work to empower women, educate them about their rights, and help them overcome the barriers that prevent them from participating in political processes. Civil society groups have made significant contributions to increasing women’s representation in state legislatures, although much work remains to be done.

Advocacy and Lobbying

Civil society groups in India have been instrumental in advocating for women’s rights and lobbying for legal reforms that promote gender equality in politics. For instance, groups like the National Alliance of Women’s Organizations have been advocating for the passage of the Women’s Reservation Bill, which seeks to reserve 33% of seats in state legislatures for women.

Capacity Building

Civil society groups often conduct workshops, training programs, and seminars to equip women with the necessary skills and knowledge to participate effectively in political processes. They provide training on leadership skills, public speaking, campaigning, and understanding the legislative process.

Awareness Raising

These groups also work to raise awareness about the importance of women’s political participation among the general public. They use various platforms, including social media, radio, television, and community meetings, to educate people about the need for gender equality in politics.

Providing Platforms for Women

Civil society groups provide platforms for women to voice their concerns, share their experiences, and network with other women leaders. For example, organizations like the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) have created platforms for women to discuss their issues and formulate strategies for political participation.

Encouraging Women to Run for Office

Many civil society groups actively encourage women to run for political office. They provide support in terms of campaign management, fundraising, and navigating the political landscape. For example, the Political Shakti campaign aims to encourage more women to participate in politics by providing them with necessary resources and support.

Research and Documentation

Civil society groups conduct research and document cases of women’s political participation. This helps in understanding the challenges faced by women in politics and formulating strategies to overcome these challenges.

Legal Support

Some civil society groups provide legal support to women who face discrimination or violence in their political journey. They help women understand their legal rights and provide assistance in filing cases.

Building Alliances

Civil society groups often build alliances with other like-minded organizations, both nationally and internationally, to strengthen their advocacy efforts. They collaborate with other organizations to amplify their voice and influence policy decisions.


Civil society groups have played a significant role in promoting women’s participation and representation in state legislatures in India. They have been instrumental in advocating for women’s rights, building their capacities, raising awareness, and providing necessary support. However, despite these efforts, women’s representation in Indian politics remains low. Therefore, there is a need for continued efforts from civil society groups, in collaboration with the government and other stakeholders, to ensure that women are adequately represented in political processes.

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