2021 GS1 Answer

Q. Bring out the constructive programmes of Mahatma Gandhi during Non-Cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question from UPSC Mains 2021 GS1 Paper

Model Answer: 

Mahatma Gandhi and his Constructive Programs

Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch advocate of non-violent resistance and he used this as a means to fight against the British colonial rule in India. During the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement, he formulated a number of constructive programs to achieve his goals.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22)

Khadi: One of the most important constructive programs initiated by Gandhi during the Non-Cooperation Movement was the promotion of Khadi. He believed that Khadi was a symbol of self-reliance and that it could provide employment to millions of Indians who were dependent on the British textile industry. He also believed that Khadi would help in promoting the Indian culture and self-esteem.

Education: Gandhi believed that education was a tool to achieve social and economic empowerment. He encouraged the establishment of schools and colleges which would provide basic education to the masses. He believed that education should be made available to all, irrespective of caste, creed or religion.

Swadeshi: Gandhi promoted the use of Swadeshi goods, which were products made in India. He believed that the use of Swadeshi goods would reduce India’s dependence on foreign products and would also help in promoting local industries.

Villages: Gandhi believed that the key to India’s progress lay in the development of its villages. He encouraged the establishment of self-sufficient and self-governing village communities. He believed that these communities could provide basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and education to their members.

Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34)

Salt Satyagraha: The Salt Satyagraha was one of the most significant events of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It involved the making of salt by the Indian people in defiance of the British Salt Law. Gandhi believed that this act of civil disobedience would awaken the people of India to their rights and would force the British government to negotiate with them.

Boycott of British goods: Gandhi called for a boycott of all British goods and products. He believed that this would help in reducing India’s dependence on British products and would also help in promoting Indian industries.

Harijan upliftment: Gandhi was a staunch advocate of the upliftment of the Harijans, who were considered to be the lowest in the Indian caste hierarchy. He believed that they should be given equal rights and opportunities and should be treated with dignity and respect.

Purna Swaraj: Gandhi believed that India should be given complete independence from the British rule. He called for Purna Swaraj or complete independence and believed that this could only be achieved through non-violent means.

In conclusion, Gandhi’s constructive programs during the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement were aimed at promoting self-reliance, self-governance, and economic empowerment of the Indian people. These programs were based on the principles of non-violence and were instrumental in creating a sense of national consciousness among the Indian people.

More Questions:
UPSC Factory App
Get everything you need for upsc preparation with just one click! Install now!