2023 GS1 Answer

Q. Discuss the consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS1 Paper

Model Answer: 

Climate Change and its Impact on Food Security in Tropical Countries

Climate change is a global issue that has been affecting various sectors, including agriculture, which is a major source of food. Tropical countries, which are located near the equator, are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to their geographical location and socio-economic conditions. This answer discusses the consequences of climate change on food security in tropical countries.

1. Changes in Rainfall Patterns

Climate change can alter rainfall patterns, leading to either excessive rainfall or prolonged dry periods. For instance, in parts of Africa and South Asia, it’s predicted that there will be an increase in heavy rainfall events, causing flooding and damage to crops. On the other hand, regions like the Amazon Basin may experience longer dry seasons, leading to droughts that can severely impact agricultural productivity.

2. Rising Temperatures

Rising temperatures due to global warming can lead to increased evaporation rates, reducing the availability of water for irrigation. This can result in lower crop yields, affecting the availability of food. For example, in the Sahel region of Africa, rising temperatures have been linked to declining millet yields.

3. Increased Pest and Disease Incidence

Higher temperatures and changes in rainfall can create favourable conditions for pests and diseases. For instance, the spread of the Fall Armyworm in Africa, which damages maize crops, has been linked to climate change.

4. Sea Level Rise

In coastal tropical countries, rising sea levels can lead to the inundation of agricultural land with saltwater, making it unsuitable for crop cultivation. For example, in Bangladesh, a significant proportion of agricultural land is threatened by sea-level rise.

5. Increased Intensity and Frequency of Extreme Weather Events

Climate change can lead to more frequent and intense storms, hurricanes, and cyclones, which can cause significant damage to crops. For instance, the Caribbean islands, which are major producers of bananas, are often hit by hurricanes that destroy banana plantations.

6. Reduced Fish Stocks

Rising ocean temperatures and ocean acidification, caused by increased CO2 levels, can negatively impact fish stocks, a major source of protein for many tropical countries. Coral reef systems, which are vital for fish species, are also threatened by these changes.

7. Impact on Livestock

Heat stress due to rising temperatures can affect livestock health and productivity, leading to reduced meat and milk production. This can affect the availability and affordability of these food items.

8. Impact on Food Prices

The reduction in agricultural productivity can lead to an increase in food prices, making food less affordable, especially for the poor. This can lead to increased food insecurity and malnutrition.

9. Impact on Nutrition

Climate change can also affect the nutritional quality of food. For instance, higher CO2 levels can reduce the protein content in staple crops like rice and wheat, affecting the nutritional security of populations dependent on these crops.

10. Socio-economic Impacts

The impacts of climate change on agriculture can lead to loss of livelihoods for farmers, leading to increased poverty and food insecurity. For instance, in the Pacific Islands, changes in weather patterns and sea-level rise are threatening the livelihoods of communities dependent on subsistence farming and fishing.


Climate change poses a significant threat to food security in tropical countries. It is therefore crucial to implement adaptation and mitigation strategies, such as the development of climate-resilient crop varieties, sustainable farming practices, and policies to support affected communities

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