2023 GS3 Answer

Q. What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats.

Question from UPSC Mains 2023 GS3 Paper

Model Answer: 

India’s Internal Security Challenges

India, being a diverse and multicultural country, faces a plethora of internal security challenges. These range from terrorism, naxalism, and communal violence to cyber threats, drug trafficking, and economic offenses. The Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies play a crucial role in countering these threats and maintaining peace and harmony in the country.

1. Terrorism:

Terrorism, particularly cross-border terrorism, is a significant internal security challenge for India. The country has been a victim of numerous terrorist attacks, such as the 26/11 Mumbai attacks and the 2001 Parliament attack. The National Investigation Agency (NIA) and the Intelligence Bureau (IB) are primarily tasked with investigating and preventing such threats.

2. Naxalism:

Left-wing extremism, also known as Naxalism, is another major issue. It affects several states, including Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. The NIA and state police forces work in tandem to counter this menace.

3. Communal Violence:

Communal violence, often fueled by religious, caste, or ethnic differences, poses a significant threat to India’s internal security. Intelligence agencies play a crucial role in identifying potential flashpoints and taking preventive measures.

4. Cyber Threats:

With the increasing digitization, India faces a growing threat from cybercrimes, including hacking, data theft, and online fraud. The Cyber Crime Cell of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) are responsible for investigating and preventing such crimes.

5. Drug Trafficking:

India, due to its geographical location, is vulnerable to drug trafficking, which funds various illegal activities. The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) is the apex agency tasked with combating drug trafficking and substance abuse in the country.

6. Economic Offenses:

Economic offenses like money laundering, tax evasion, and financial frauds undermine the country’s economic security. The Enforcement Directorate (ED) and the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) are primarily responsible for investigating such offenses.

7. Human Trafficking:

Human trafficking for forced labor, sexual exploitation, and other illicit activities is a significant challenge. The Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) under the Ministry of Home Affairs are primarily responsible for combating this menace.

8. Border Management:

India shares borders with several countries, and illegal cross-border activities pose a significant threat to its internal security. The Border Security Force (BSF) and the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) are responsible for securing India’s borders.


The internal security challenges faced by India are multifaceted and complex. The Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies play a vital role in countering these threats and safeguarding the nation’s security. However, these agencies need to be continuously upgraded and equipped with the latest technologies to effectively tackle the evolving security challenges. Furthermore, there is a need for greater coordination among these agencies and a comprehensive national security policy to address the various internal security threats effectively.

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